Monday, 9 June 2014

ANALYST (CHEMICAL TESTING LABORATORY)

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ANALYST (CHEMICAL TESTING LABORATORY) 
INDUSTRIES AND COMMERCE 
(CATEGORY NO. 339/2010) 
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PART I-QUESTIONS BASED ON TECHNICAL QUALIFICATION 
UNIT I 
Fluid dynamics: - Types of fluid flow in pipes, vis cous and turbulent flow- Reynolds's Experiment - Bernoulli's Theorem: -- Expressing f low rates as velocity, volume rate and mass rate - Equation for continuity.

Flow measurement: - Flow metering- classification o f flow measuring equipments. Hydrodynamics method, mechanical method and special methods. Orifice meter, venturimeter, pitot tube and weirs. Rotameter - wor king principles, materials of construction and applications meters .

Pipes and pipe fittings: Pipes and tubes - pipe and tube standards,

Gaskets and packing: -Sealing of rotating shafts - stuffing boxes and mechanical seals Fundamentals of flow control mechanism and valve cl assification- Gate valve and its variations like sluice valve and slide valve - Plug valve (cocks) - 2 way and 3 way and non-lubricating plug valves, Ball valves, stop valv es - Globe valve, Butterfly valve, Diaphragm valve

Pump classifications - Positive displacement and Ce ntrifugal.

Positive displacement pumps - reciprocating and ro tary - reciprocating tvpe - piston plunger pumps - simplex and duplex - single acting and double acting.

Diaphragm pumps - Rotary -- gear pump, screw pumps, lobe pumps.

Centrifugal pumps: - Basic working principles, type s of impellers for different fluids, single suction and double suction type. Priming of centrifugal pumps and self-priming pumps. Turbine pumps, NPSH cavitations, Fans, Blowers, compressors - Positive dis placement blowers, turbo blowers, turbo compressors, positive displacement compressor s, vacuum pumps and ejectors. Nash Hytor.

UNIT II 
Heat transfer by conduction in solids - steady stat e and unsteady slate fl-. Fourier's law of conduction - Rate equation for heat flow - stead y state heat flow conduction through single wall - derivation of equation -- Thermal con ductivity - units. Theorv of convection - film concept of heat transfe r temperature gradient in forced convection - derivation of overall heat transfer co efficient from individual heat transfer coefficient .

Forced convection: Heat transfer by forced convecti on inside tubes for laminar and turbulent flow - Dimensional equation - simple pr oblems - mechanism of natural convection - heat transfer in boiling liquids - sat urated boiling — elementary idea of black body - gray body - emissivity -emissive power -- radiation laws. Stefan Boltzmann equation.

Parallel flow - counter current flow - cross flow h eal exchangers - Fouling effect calculation - Heat transfer equipment - Heaters and heat exchangers - single pass shell and tube heaters Multi pass healers - floating head healers - use of baffles on shell side of heat exchangers, double pipe heat exchangers - p late type heat exchangers - air fin cooler.

Evaporation - Examples of industries where evaporat ion is used as a unit operation. Tvpes of evaporators - basis of classification - ho rizontal tube - vertical tube - climbing film - falling film - forced circulation evaporator s - examples of application of each in industries -continuous operation and control of eva porators - evaporator accessories - Multiple effect evaporators.

UNIT III
Diffusion Molecular diffusion - molar flux - Fick's rate equa tion
Absorption Mechanism of Absorption - conditions of equilibrium between gas and liquid - Henry's law - factors controlling rate of absorptio n - equipments for absorption operations -packed tower - packing materials - char acteristics of packing - liquid distributors - channeling.

Adsorption Physical and chemical adsorption - various types of adsorbents - applications - manufacture of adsorbents; ion exchange - principle — molecular sieves

General mechanism of diffusional processes - Defini tions and mathematical expressions for Molal humidity - Absolute humidity - Relative h umidity - percentage humidity - Humid volume - Humid heat - Enthalpy and dew point - Humidity chart. Adiabatic saturation temperature -- wet bulb temp cooling tow ers - atmospheric - natural and forced draft, cross flow type -- humidification and dehumidification - air condition.

Purpose and industrial applications - drying equipment – classifications - tray dryer tunnel dryer - rotary dryer - turbo dryer - spray d ryer -drum dryer - cylinder dryer - fluid bed dryer -dry basis and wet basis of express ion of moisture content - equilibrium moisture content - free moisture content - bound an d unbound water - mechanism of batch drying of solids - constant rate and falling rate period.

Distillation as an inter phase mass transfer- indus trial application - definition of terms - less volatile, more volatile, low boiling, high boiling - vapour - liquid equilibrium diagrams and their importance. Ideal and non-ideal solutions - Roault's law - calculation of X-Y data using Roault’s law. Azeotro pes - maximum and minimum boiling - volatility and relative volatility - calc ulation of relative volatility of a binary mixture. Types of distillation-equilibrium - simp le distillation, steam distillation.

Rectification, Azeotropic distillation, extractive distillation, and molecular distillation.
Rectification
Applications of leaching - batch and continuous - he ap leaching - percolation tanks - shank system - agitated vessel - continuous counter current decantation - Boll man extractor -Rotocel extractor - Kennedy extractor Liquid - Liquid extraction- Raffinate - Extract - c onstruction details of mixer settlers -spray and packed towers .
Crystallization
Application - equilibrium curve for a solid - liquid system - yield of crystals - solubility - saturation - super saturation - crystal growth - methods of super saturation - material balance equation-Construction details of Tank cryst allizer - cooling crystallizer. evaporator crystallizer.

UNIT IV 
Filtration and Centrifugation 
Filtration and its application in industry -Classif ication of filters atmospheric, pressure and vacuum filters - field of application and const ructional details, working and application of the following. Sand filter- open - F ilter presses - plate and frame filter press, Leaf filters - pressure and vacuum types - Moore filter - Continuous filter - rotary drum - working cycle – selection of filters - fil ter aids, their function and applications.
Centrifugation:
Centrifugal force developed in centrifuges - clas sification of centrifuges - batch- semi continuous, continuous - top driven - bottom driven - perforated solid bowl - super centrifuges - operation - field of application
Size Reduction
Nature of the materials to be crushed - hardness, s tructure, moisture content, Types of crusting equipments, coarse crushers -Intermediate crushers -fine grinders -open circuit grinding - closed circuit grinding. Laws of crushing - Kick's law - Rittingers law - Bonds law - Jaw crusher - gyratory - crusher -crush ing rolls - angle of nip - capacity, hammer mill - ball mill - critical speed- Raymond m ill - tube mill Average particle size - specific surface of mixture, volume surface mean di ameter - arithmetic mean diameter - mass mean diameter - shape factor.
Size Separation
Screens: Tyler and U.S. standard screens -Screen an alysis: efficiency and capacity of screens Types of screening equipment - grizzlies - trammels, shaking screens, vibrating screens Air separation methods: cyclone separator - air separator - bag filter. Electrostatic precipitator - settling chambers - cy clone separator - venturi scrubbers - separation of solids in liquids - Stokes law and it s application, terminal velocities- Sedimentation, Agitation and Mixing Sedimentation se paration in liquid medium - batch sedimentation - application of batch settling tests to design of continuous thickness - Kynch theory, determination thickener a rea - equipments -double cone classifier - Dorr classifier - gravity continuous t hickeners - elutriator jigging - tabling - light and dense medium separation based on differen ce in densities and its application. Principle of froth flotation cells, froth floatatio n cells - simple flow sheet for floatation plant, magnetic separators - Purpose of agitation - agitation equipment - propellers, paddles .

Fluidiization, Storage and Transportation of Solids Storage of Gases and Liquids Mechanism of fluidization conditions for fluidizati on - batch fluidization - boiling effect - minimum porosity


UNIT V
Process Control
Recorders, timers - transducers-Characteristics of measuring elements and process control system - open and closed loop systems -bl ock diagrams of back ward feed, forward feed controls - types of control mode s - on-off, proportional, integral, derivative, and their combinations. Characteris tics of these controls.- Pneumatic systems for the above modes of control. Self operat ed controllers, elementary principles of controls — its advantages over the other, final control elements - control valves, actuators, pneumatic, hydraulic, electric and mecha nical and solenoid valve
Computerized Control
Descriptive treatment of the following: -Telemeteri ng devices. Analog and digital signal transmission, A/D, D/A converter, analog and digital- computer control system - microprocessor, distributed control svstem – SCADA, C omparison of SCADA with DCS.
PROPERTIES OF STEAM & BOILERS
Properties of steam - Explanation of properties of steam such as total heat of water, latent heat, total heat of steam, super heat, dryne ss fraction. Function of boilers - classification - working principle - fire tube and water tube boilers - Simple vertical boiler - Cochran boiler- Boiler mountings - accesso ries.  
OPERATIONAL MAINTENANCE OF CHEMICAL PLANT EQUIPMENTS Principle of management - types of maintenance - maintenance sch edule – records - replacement - maintenance of chemical plant equipments - Troubles and remedial actions - start up and commissioning of equipments - plant inspection - vessel entry - testing methods - non destructive testing methods - radio graphic & ul trasonic test.
PLANT LOCATION AND LAY-OUT
 Location of Chemical Plant - Important factors cons idering Plant Location and Plant Lay-out - Master Plot Plan and Unit Plot Plan - Chemical Plant Buildings - Roofing - Flooring - Ventilation and Il luminations.


PART II – QUESTIONS BASED ON DEGREE IN CHEMISTRY 
Module 1
Environment, nature of environmental threats and th e role of chemistry, chemistry of the air, water, soil environment, Fact ors affecting environment, types of environment. Importance of clean air, pollution, or gin of pollution, Air pollutants, Health and environmental effects of pollutants. Wat er pollution, visible signs of w a t e r pollution, effects of water pollution, water quality Standard Biological magnification and bioaccumulation. Sewage, Sewage a nalysis BOD and COD. Soil pollution-control measures, noise pollution and noi se control, chemical pollution, pesticide pollution, thermal pollution-effects And c ontrol measures.
Module 2
Purification of organic compounds, detection and es t im at io n of elements, molecular formula. Hybridisation, bond, lengths bond angles b ond energy, localized chemical bonds, Van der Waals interaction, Hyper co njugation, resonance, aromaticity, Inductive and field effects, hydrogen bonding. Type of reagents Electrophiles and nucleophiles. Types of organic r eactions, energy considerations. Reactive intermediates-carbocations, carboanions, f ree radicals, carbenes, arynes and nitrenes. Method of determination of reaction mech anisms. Types of isomerism, Optical isomerism, Relative and absolute configuration, Geo metrical isomerism and conformational isomerism.
Module 3
Idea of De Broglie matter wave, Heisenberg uncertai nity principle, Atomic orbitals, Schrodingcr wave equation, quantum number s, Shape of s, p, d orbitals. Aufban and Pauli exclusion principals, Hund's multip licity rule, Electronic configuration of the elements. Atomic and ionic ra dii, Ionization energy, Electron affinity and electronegativity. Trends in periodic table and applications in prediting and explaining the chemical behaviour. Some charact eristic study of s, p, d and f block elements.

Module 4 
Basic concepts-system, surroundings, types of syste ms, Extensive and Inten sive properties, macroscopic properties, state functions and path functions, type of process, Definition of internal energy and enthalpy. Heat ca pacities at constant volume and at constant pressure. Mathematical statement of fir st l aw , reversible process and maximum work.
Thermo chemistry – standard states, enthalpies of f ormation, combustion and neutralisation. Hess's law and its a p p l i ca t io n s . Properties of liquids, Surface tension and its meas urement, factors affecting surface tension, viscosity, Refractive in dex and its determination. Chemical kinetics, rate of reaction, factors influe ncing the rate of a reaction, order of chemical reaction, determination of order of reacti on, theories of chemical kinetics, effect of temperature on rate of a reaction. Arrhen ius equation, Concept of activation energy.

PART III – CURRENT AFFAIRS & RENAISSANCE IN KERALA 
General Knowledge Geography of India- Physical Features- Climate-Soil s- Rivers- Famous Sites – Etc. – Demography- Economic and Social Development-Poverty Alleviation-Economy and Planning-Etc. –
History of India- Period from 1857 to 1947- National Movement- Etc. Current affairs Important World, National and Regional Events relat ed to the Political and Scientific fields, Sports, Cinema and Literature etc.
Renaissance in Kerala 
Important Events/ Movements /Leaders Brahmananda Swami Sivayogi, Chattampi Swami, Sree N arayana Guru, Vagbhatananda, Thycaud Ayya, Ayya Vaikundar, Poikayil Yohannan (Ku mara Guru), Ayyankali, Pandit Karuppan, Mannathu Padmanabhan, V.T.Bhattathirippad , Dr. Palpu, Kumaranasan, Vakkom Moulavi, Blessed Kuriakose Elias Chavara, Et c
NOTE: - It may be noted that apart from the topics detailed above, questions from other topics prescribed for the educational qu alification of the post may also appear in the question paper. There is no unde rtaking that all the topics above may be covered in the question paper

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